Biotechnology is a vast field of science.
In this, we use microorganisms for human welfare by altering their nature and
changing their genetic makeup by various methods and also genetic sequence
of cells are manipulated to make them useful.

It is also helpful in studying microbes and we can convert raw material into
useful product.
Microbes are used in dairy technology also comes under this technology.
In  prepare antibiotics, probiotics, starter cultures and much more.

Many kind of techniques and methods are used in biotechnology are
genetic transformation, micropropagation, bacterial conjugation, transformation.


Applications of biotechnology

Biotechnology plays very important role in agriculture
  • We prepare various types of fertilizers.
  • We can increase the nutritional value of certain plants.
  • We can also increase the yield of crops.
  • Various kind of diseases related to plants can also treated with the help of this
technology and we can make disease resistant plants.
  • Also plants can be made resistant to various kind environmental conditions like
drought, high speed wind, heavy rainfall etc.
  • It also works for the eco friendly methods and it replaces chemical fertilizers and
use of vermicomposting is prefered.

Vermicompost is a skill of biotechnology in which we converts raw material into useful
product. It changes the mode of agriculture into natural mode. We use organic raw material
from kitchen, cow dung, rice straw. Earthworms are used to convert organic waste to useful
product. Every material used in vermicomposting is eco friendly and biodegradable which
good for our environment and it increases fertility of soil naturally. In can be done in field
Genetic makeup of cells can also be changed. This can increase the ability of cell. It can be
done by various methods like microinjection. In microinjection a very fine needle can
penetrate the cell membrane and and nucleus and a gene or dna fragment can be introduced. To perform this technique we need highly skilled labour. This technique is costly because the kit used is very expensive. Highly skilled labour is also expensive. This technique comes under genetic engineering. Size of needle used is 0.5 and 5 ┬Ám.

Limitations of biotechnology

If anything is useful for us then also it has many negative effects in.

  • Changing of genetic sequence of living cells and microorganisms is considered as unethical and this can affect the upcoming generations.
  • Antibiotics are tested on living animals and sometimes these animals died or
theysuffer from pain which is very unnatural. Animal testing is done under government
supervision only.
  • In this results are not definite and sometimes this leads to the loss of large amount
of money.
  • Special licences are required to set up such labs for performing techniques of
biotechnology which is not easy. Generally private sector holds such labs.


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